Songhai askia

Muhammad I Askia Biography, Facts, & Dynasty Britannic

  1. Muhammad I Askia, West African statesman and military leader who usurped the throne of the Songhai empire (1493) and, in a series of conquests, greatly expanded the empire and strengthened it. He was overthrown by his son, Askia Musa, in 1528. Learn more about Muhammad I Askia here
  2. However, as Askia the Great grew older, his power declined. In 1528, his sons revolted against him and declared Musa, one of Askia's many sons, as king. Following Musa's overthrow in 1531, Songhai's empire went into decline
  3. A Guide to the Songhai Civilization in Civ 5, led by Askia. Includes information on Unique Units and Buildings, Common Strategies for Players and AI Dispositions (Flavors) toward Wonder Construction, Warmonger Hate, their preferred victory type, and how covetous they are of their City-State Allies
  4. Muhammad I Askia (Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr Ture), [2] även kallad Askia Muhammad den store; född 1442, död 1538 i Gao; var statsman och militär ledare för Songhairiket och anses vara en av de stora västafrikanska härskarna. Han gjorde Songhai till en islamisk stat som under hans regering ökade till en yta på 1 300 000 km² i den västafrikanska delen av Sahel som omfattade stora delar.
  5. The Songhai kingdom under the rule of Askia Mohammed used slaves as soldiers. Slaves were trusted not to overthrow their rulers. Slaves were also given important positions as royal advisers. Songhai rulers believed that slaves could be trusted to provide unbiased advice unlike other citizens who held a personal stake in the outcome of decisions

In the late 15th century under Sunni Ali Ber would take advantage of the growing weaknesses of Mali, and take much of its land in the name of the Songhai Empire. This would be continued under Muhammad I Askia, creating a vast state dominating sub-saharan West Africa. With such power, Songhai's only problems came from within - or so it seemed Songhai rulers only intervened in the affairs of these neighboring states when a situation became volatile, usually an isolated incident. Each town was represented by government officials, holding positions and responsibilities similar to today's central bureaucrats. [citation needed] Under Askia Muhammad, the Empire saw increased centralization Askia the Great opened religious schools and astronomical observatories. Songhai and Tuareg, but the main part of the chronicle depicts the history of the 15th and 16th century Songhai. It also contains biographies of scholars and holymen of Djenne & Timbuktu Songhai led by Askia is a civilization available in vanilla Civilization 5. It does not require any DLC. 1 Overview 1.1 Songhai 1.2 Askia 1.2.1 Dawn of Man 2 Unique Attributes 3 Strategy 4 Music 5 Mod Support 5.1 Events and Decisions 5.1.1 Recruit Scholars for the Sankoré University 5.1.2 Police.. Askia Mohammad The Great I (1443-1538) was emperor of the Songhai Empire from 1493 to 1538. Askia was a former general who overthrew the king Sunni Baru in 1493 when he refused to convert to Islam; Askia became a Muslim ruler who established an organized tax system and encouraged education.. Biography. Mohammad Ture was a military commander of the Songhai Empire, who commanded some of.

Songhai World Civilizatio

Songhai Empire under Askia Muhammad the Great. After the death of Sunni Ali in c. 1492, Sonni Baru succeeded to the throne. Baru's reign was an unmemorable one since he stayed on the throne for just over a year. After Sonni Baru, Muhammad I was crowned king of Songhai Empire. The emperor was also commonly called Askia the Great Mohammad ibn Abi Bakr Ture (c. 1440 - 1538 AD), also known as Mohammad I Askia (reigned 1493 - 1528), welded the central region of the western Sudan into a s.. Askia in game. Askia is the leader of the Songhai in Civilization V.He speaks Zarma, the most widely spoken Songhai language.He is seen standing on a cliff in front of a city he conquered - likely Djenne because the building in the background looks like the Great Mosque of Djenne - and the fires behind him are actually purposely lit. He carries a sword

Civ 5 Songhai Strategy: Bonuses, Mud Pyramid Mosque, Cavalr

Muhammad I Askia ruled Songhai from 1493 until 1528. The word Askia means usurper, which is how he came to power, overthrowing Ali Ber's son and heir less than a year after Ber's death. That he chose usurper for his title and dynastic name suggests that this extraordinary man had an extraordinary sense of humor. Although he fought a war. The Linked Data Service provides access to commonly found standards and vocabularies promulgated by the Library of Congress. This includes data values and the controlled vocabularies that house them. Datasets available include LCSH, BIBFRAME, LC Name Authorities, LC Classification, MARC codes, PREMIS vocabularies, ISO language codes, and more Askia. Moḥammad ibn Abī Bakr Ture, also known as Moḥammad I Askia (reigned 1493-1528), welded the central region of the western Niger into a single Songhai empire, the largest in African history. Although he fought several military campaigns, he is primarily remembered for reorganizing, modernizing and bringing stability to the Songhai

Muhammad I Askia - Wikipedi

Songhai empire, great trading state of West Africa (flourished 15th-16th century), centered on the middle reaches of the Niger River in what is now central Mali and eventually extending west to the Atlantic coast and east into Niger and Nigeria. Learn more about the Songhai empire here Civilization V OST by Geoff Knorr & Michael Curran: Askia Peace Theme The kingdom of Songhai existed from 1375 to 1591. It was ruled by the Za dynasty, Sunni dynasty and Askia dynasty of kings. The Songhai kingdom occupied the banks of the river Niger and stretched over the regions of Mali, Ghana, Nigeria, the borders of the Sahara and to the Atlantic Ocean coast

Songhai, African Empire, 15-16th Century South African

Under the rule of Askia the Great trade expanded furthering the Songhai Empire. The empire evolved into a trading hub of the world with his help, Trade improved under Askia, with gold, kola nuts and slaves being the main export.(BBC) Askia was a large player in the bettering of the Songhai Empire and the bettering of the state ultimately Askia Ishaq II (1588-1591) ascended to power in a long dynastic struggle following the death of Askia Daoud. He would be the last ruler of the empire. In 1590, al-Mansur took advantage of the recent civil strife in the empire and sent an army under the command of Judar Pasha to conquer the Songhai and to gain control of the Trans-Saharan trade routes 1528 - 1531: Askia Musa: Son and usurper. Assassinated. 1528: Having already achieved a high point in its expansion and organisation, the Songhai empire under the Askia dynasty begins to decline. Askia Musa, having deposed his own father, is surrounded by relatives who also want a taste of power and he does his best to kill as many of them as possible The Empire of Songhai 1. • • • • • In 1365, the Songhai city of Gao declared it's independence from Mali 1468, Muslim leaders in the city of Timbuktu asked the Songhai king Sunni Ali to overthrow the Berbers Sunni Ali did as he was asked, and killed many people who lived in the city as well As a result Sunni Ali established a reputation as a powerful and harsh leader He went on to.

The Songhai empire lasted from about 1375 to 1591. It was the largest and the last of the three major pre-colonial empires from West Africa. It developed out of the kingdom of Gao, and ruler Sunni Ali Ber helped the Songhai empire take over Mali Askia the Great encouraged the spread of Islam in the empire, while continuing to accept the traditional religions. The Songhai Empire derived from the ending of the Mali Empire under the rule of Sonni Ali(first ruler). The second ruler, Askia Muhammad, made the century lasting age of peace and stability

The Songhai Empire was at its most prosperous during his reign. A devout Muslim, Askia Dawud helped Timbuktu retain its title as the center of Islamic studies in the Sahel region during h is reign. Askia Dawud, with his numerous sons, was bound to repeat Askia Muhammad's mistake Askia came to power by overthrowing the Sunni Dynasty. Between 1464 and 1492, the Songhai Empire prospered under the rule of Sunni Ali. His successor, Sunni Baru, however, was a much less capable emperor and the dynasty came to an end just a year after Sunni Ali's death Songhai had already grown to become the one of the strongest empires in African history, but Askia would expand the empire far beyond what Sunni Ali Ber could have ever hoped to achieve. He immediately waged a successful jihad against the Mossi of Yatenga, captured Mali, defeated the Fulani and extended the borders farther north than any other Sudanic empire to the ancient salt mines of Taghaza

Askia the Great's reign ended in 1528 when he was deposed by his son and successor, Askia Musa. The Songhai Empire continued to prosper under the Askia dynasty, though dynastic squabbles were weakening the empire. Apart from these internal problems, the Songhai Empire had to deal with external threats as well, as the wealth of the empire was. Songhai reached its zenith during the Askia dynasty with its borders stretching from the Atlantic coast to Mali, Niger, and Nigeria. The Songhai Empire Turmoil, however, plagued the Askia dynasty Askia Muhammad's achievements in regards to Songhai government he created a strong and cohesive government and efficient administration units. he opened up the ranks of government service with high office achieved on the basis of scholarship and intellect Most of the Songhai became clients of the Mali empire until 1435 c.e. Two Songhai princes, sensing the decline of Mali's fortunes, demanded independence. They established a new dynasty called the Sunni. Muslim chroniclers remember the Muslim Askia Muhammad Touré as the most famous king of the Songhai

Askia Muhammad I (a. 1443 - 1538), haifaffen Muhammad Ture sylla ko Muhammed Touré sylla a Futa Tooro, wanda daga baya ake kira Askia, wanda aka fi sani da Askia Babba, ya kasance sarki, kwamandan soja, kuma mai kawo canji ga siyasa na Daular Songhai a ƙarshen karni na 15.Ya kasance daga ƙabilar Soninke . Askia Muhammad ya karfafa daularsa kuma ya mai da ita daula mafi girma a tarihin. TrendingCips.com - Askia the great.Muhammad I Askia (also referred to as Askia the Great) was one amongst the foremost necessary emperors of the Songhai Empire. Askia came to power in 1493, once he overthrew the last ruler of the Sunni dynasty, Sunni Baru, and established the Askia dynasty Mohammed I AskiaBorn c. 1442 Died 1538 Songhai emperor This king makes war only upon neighboring enemies and upon those who do not want to pay him tribute. When he has gained a victory, he has all of them—even the children—sold in the market at Timbuktu.Leo Africanus, describing Mohammed I Askia Source for information on Mohammed I Askia: Middle Ages Reference Library dictionary The Songhai Empire began to decline at the end of Askia Muhammad's reign, and in 1590, a Moroccan army (from North Africa) invaded Songhai in search of gold. Despite having fewer soldiers, the Moroccans won because their guns were no match for Songhai 's bow and arrows The Songhai Empire was organized into five provinces. Each province was led by a governor. Sunni Baru was named as the King of the Songhai Empire following the death of his father, Sunni Ali in 1492. Sunni Baru ruled the empire for 40 months before being dethroned by Askia Muhammad in 1493. Sunni Ali was a legendary character in the Songhai Empire

Askia Muhammad became the leader of the Songhai in 1493. He brought the Songhai Empire to its peak and established the Askia Dynasty. Askia Muhammad was a committed Muslim. Islam was made an significant part of the empire under his rule. He captured most of the surrounding lands and took control of the Mali empire's gold and salt trade Askia Daoud was the ruler of the Songhai Empire from 1549 to 1582. Daoud came to power unopposed following the death of his brother Askia Ishaq I in 1549. The Empire continued to expand under Daoud's peaceful rule, and saw little internal strife, until the invasion and interference of the Moroccan forces, which led to the empire's downfall in 1591 From the city of Gao, he established the Songhai Empire and began to conquer nearby regions including the important trading cities of Timbuktu and Djenne. Askia Muhammad In 1493, Askia Muhammad became the leader of the Songhai. He brought the Songhai Empire to its height of power and founded the Askia Dynasty. Askia Muhammad was a devout Muslim Tomb of Askia Mohammad I (r. 1494-1528 CE) of the Songhai Empire.Gao, Mali. The complex includes the pyramidal tomb, two flat-roofed mosque buildings, the mosque cemetery, and the open-air assembly ground Askia the Great followed after Sunni Baru, who was overthrown by the people of Songhai, because he wasn't an effective ruler, and didn't build upon the empire, much like his father. Askia the Great, worked as hard as Sunni Ali, and cemented his state as a great leader

Another proficient ruler of the Songhai Empire was Askia the Great. Known for encouraging international trade between Songhai and both Europe and Asia, Askia was also known for his religious tolerance. Like the rulers before him of both Songhai and Mali, Askia the Great was a devout Muslim. He opened religious schools and mosques across the empire Songhai reached its greatest extent under Askia Muhammad I (c.1493-1528). He was deposed by his son, and in the subsequent conflicts among his successors the empire slowly began to decline. The breakup of the state was accelerated by a Moroccan invasion in 1591 Askia Daoud (also Askia Dāwūd, Askiya Dawud) was the ruler of the Songhai Empire from 1549 to 1582. Daoud came to power unopposed following the death of his brother Askia Ishaq I in 1549. The Empire continued to expand under Daoud's peaceful rule, and saw little internal strife, until the invasion and interference of the Moroccan forces, which led to the empire's downfall in 1591 Si Askia Ishaq II (1588-1591) ay umakyat sa kapangyarihan sa isang mahabang dinastikong pakikibaka kasunod ng pagkamatay ni Askia Daoud. Siya ang magiging huling pinuno ng imperyo. Noong 1590, sinamantala ni al-Mansur ang kamakailang mga sibil na alitan sa imperyo at nagpadala ng isang hukbo sa ilalim ng pamumuno ni Judar Pasha upang lupigin ang Songhai at upang makuha ang kontrol ng Trans.

Steam Community :: Guide :: Zigzagzigal's Guide to Songhai

  1. While its time as leader of West Africa only spanned some 200 hundred years, the Songhai's strong leaders, such as Sonni Ali and Muhammad Askia, ensured that its glory would live on forever in its.
  2. Songhai rulers only intervened in the affairs of these neighboring states when a situation became volatile, usually an isolated incident. Each town was represented by government officials, holding positions and responsibilities similar to today's central bureaucrats. Under Askia Muhammad, the Empire saw increased centralization
  3. Muhammad Toure, also known Askia Muhammad I and Askia the Great, was a ruler of the Songhay (or Songhai) Empire of West Africa in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Though Muhammad's origins are debated, it is accepted that he was a descendent of the Soninke people, one of the oldest clans in West Africa, and was among the Songhay governing elite while under the rule of his predecessor.
  4. The dramatic 17-m pyramidal structure of the Tomb of Askia was built by Askia Mohamed, the Emperor of Songhai, in 1495 in his capital Gao. It bears testimony to the power and riches of the empire that flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries through its control of the trans-Saharan trade, notably in salt and gold
  5. TechnologyThe technology of Songhai was very strong. They had advancments in tools and weapons. This allowed them to build bigger buildings and conquer more lands. Government ' Social StructureThe government of Songhai was more centralized than Mali's. They had two great leaders in Sunni Ali and Askia
  6. Adds the Songhai Empire under Sonni Ali to the game and revises the Songhai under Askia. < >
  7. The current ruler of Songhai, Askia Ishaq II, assembled an army of 40,000 men to stop him, fully ten times Judar's force. However the Moroccans had one key advantage, one that the Songhai had never faced before. Guns. The Songhai had planned to stampede a herd of cattle through the Moroccans,.

Songhai Empire - Wikipedi

Songhai was best known for a A. thriving trade of imported goods. B. a dictatorial government that oversaw all aspects of the empire C. a diverse selection of exported products D. a system of taxation and wealth distributio Songhai was very well established with a large standing army, well established and important universities and religious institutions. Kim Askia Mohammad took power in 1493, and was probably the best known ruler, he was a brilliant aministrator. Askia controlled most of western africa, ruling a region that was bigger than all of europe Subsequently, Sunni Ali in 1468 became the leader of Songhai, invaded Timbuktu, and conquered the Berbers. He began a campaign of conquest and established the capital of the empire at Gao on the Niger River. The Tomb of Askia the Great and evidently the most important of all emperors of the West African ancient empires was built in Songhai The primary religion in the Songhai empire was Islam. Most upper class people were Muslim while lower class citizens generally retained their traditional religions. The government system in the empire was based off of Sharia law. Under Askia Mohammed Toure, many religious schools and mosques were built

Songhai - Europa Universalis 4 Wik

The two dominant ruling dynasties that are remembered for their time as rulers of the Songhai are the Sunni (aka Sonni) dynasty, and the Askiya (aka Askia) dynasty. Early records of the Songhai suggest that two more dynasties who called their leaders maliks and zuwa or za likely rule the Songhai in the 10 th-12 th centuries Askia's trait tripling gold from barbarian camps is more valuable now that the number of barb camps is doubled in TBC. A Songhai army needs few or zero siege units since Mandekalu Cavalry start with the Siege promotion. This makes him a highly mobile city-capturing force like Mongolia Askia encouraged learning and literacy, ensuring that Songhai's universities produced the most distinguished scholars, many of whom published significant books. Onnan Unity celebrates our rich heritage as Africans by naming our most luxury developments after great african leaders Askia relidanaboxa Disukexafe relidadre ke naboxa ke Askia gazikeem, kolnayane gan Askia Moxamed Sonxai gindik bak 1495 koe Gao kelu, va gijarotiuca is kuluca ke gindaxo vrutar, i va gindaxo dilizeso remi XV-eafa is XVI-eafa decemda tuke stujera va remsaxarafa kazara va tulon eip is moava. Belca, don relidanaboxa is toloya mazjida dem azekafa kepaita is mazjidafo awalkikxo is kokagoba, zo.

Askia The Great Revitalized the Songhay Empire by Focusing

Songhai (Askia) Civilization V Customisation Wiki Fando

How Did the Songhai Empire Dominate West Africa? | Ancient

Askia of Songhai Historica Wiki Fando

Main Idea 2:The Songhai built a new Islamic empire in West Africa, conquering many of the lands that were once part of Mali.From their capital at Gao, the Songhai kingdom participated in the same trade that had made Ghana and Mali rich.Songhai had been part of the Mali Empire, but as the empire weakened in the 1400s, the people of Songhai rebelled.Songhai leaders shared Islam with the North. Askia ishaq ll (1588-1591) ascended to power in a long dynastic struggle following the death of Askia Daoud. He would be the last ruler of the empire. In 1590, Al-mansur took advantage of the recent civil strife in the empire and sent an army under the command of Judar pasha to conquer the SONGHAI and to gain control of the trans-Saharan trade routes The fall of the Songhai Empire was caused by Askia Muhammad's sons. They tried to compete for the crown and as they did so the empire began to slowly weaken. The empire came to a close in 1591. I really like the Songhai Empire because of Askia Muhammad. I think he was a strong leader and made the empire better Check out Askia-Songhai's art on DeviantArt. Browse the user profile and get inspired

PPT - The Empires of Mali and Songhai PowerPoint

Songhai Empire - History and Major Facts - World History Ed

The Three Great emperors of Songhai were actually Two Great emperors of Songhai, which were Sunni Ali and Askia the Great. You could actually consider Musa another Great emperor of Songhai, since. Askia Muhammad chose brains over brawn, unlike Ali Ber. He set up a great government and finally got the empire organized. 3. Islamic law and scholarship was important because it made the empire smarter and trade goods came through and Songhai took the advantage and made those trades so the empire would get rich. 4

Askia Muhammad I. reigned 1493-1528. Ruler of the songhai empire. Source. Askia the Great. Widely known as Askia the Great, Askia Muhammad I was the most renowned ruler of the Songhai Empire. There is no doubt, however, that he had no constitutional right to ascend the throne Living from 1443 to 1538, Askia Muhammad was an emperor of Songhai, one of the most powerful nation-states in western Africa. He is remembered as the great for his achievements and growth of his. The strongest around in their time At the end the greatest empire in Africa had finally fallen, but we can still to this day we see the changes the great Songhai empire made to our modern life including weights, measurements and even more things that we can still see being used up to today. overall they made a huge impact on our modern day world, and THAT IS ALL FOLK Start studying Empire of Songhai. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools The Songhai Empire (aka Songhay, c. 1460 - c. 1591 CE) replaced the Mali Empire (1240-1645 CE) as the most important state in West Africa (covering modern southern Mauritania and Mali). Originating as a smaller kingdom along the eastern side of the bend of the Niger River c. 1000 CE, the Songhai would expand their territory dramatically from the reign of King Sunni Ali (1464-1492 CE)

Civilization V Leader Askia of Songhai - YouTub

B. Askia the Great ruled Songhai as an Islamic empire. 1. Muhammad Ture overthrew Sunni Baru because he did not support Islam. 2. He took the title of askia, a title of the highest military rank, and eventually became known as Askia the Great The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire, was a state located in western Africa.From the . early 15th to the late 16th century, Songhai was one of the largestIslamic empires in history. This empire. bore the same name as its leading ethnic group, the Songhai.Its capital was the city of Gao, where a Songha. i state had existed since the 11th century Askia helped straighten the businesses all throughout Songhai. He even helped the influence of Islam in Songhai. Askia had Muslim judges to base laws from the Quran which is the holy book of Islam. That helped to give the travelers in West Africa a common language. Askia was a brilliant emperor and a great military leader,but even great people. His president, Askia Muhammad, avoided these hasty sentences many times. Ali died in late 1492 upon his return from an expedition against the Gurma, probably drowned while crossing a river. His son Baru, who tried to reject all Islamic influence, succeeded him and was thus felled within 4 months by a Moslem-sanctioned coup led by Askia Muhammad Askia the Great: Revolt Leader to Powerful Songhai Emperor Muhammad I Askia (also known as Askia the Great) was one of the most important emperors of the Songhai Empire. Askia came to power in 1493, when he overthrew the last ruler of the Sunni Dynasty,..

Askia (Civ5) Civilization Wiki Fando

Songhai!, Songhai Press, 1972. From the Pyramids to the Projects: Poems of Genocide and Resistance!, African World Press, 1990. Dawnsong! The Epic Memory of Askia Tour é, Third World Press, 2000. Sources Books. Dictionary of Literary Biography. Volume 41: Afro-American Poets Since 1955, Gale Group, 1985 or Muhammad Ture died March 2, 1538, Gao, Songhai empire West African statesman and military leader. In 1493, after wresting power from Sonni 'Alī s son Sonni Baru, Muhammad created an Islamic state whose civil code was the Qurʾān and whos 4. He divided Songhai into provinces, put govenors in charge of each province, set up a bureaucracy, and had a standing army and navy. 5. Under his rule, Islam spread throughout the empire and many people in the cities and rural areas of Songhai converted to Islam

Daily Life - Songhai empire

V Leaders Reborn presents Askiya of the Songhai! Swaps Leader Art for CIVITAS' Askiya for animated and voiced Civ V Askia. All credit to the CIVITAS crew for the Songhai and Askiya mods (which are required) and to Firaxis for the original artwork The Songhai Empire prospered until late into the 16th century, particularly under the long and peaceful rule of Askia Daoud (r. 1549-1582). Following Daoud's death, however, a civil war over succession weakened the Empire, leading Morocco Sultan Ahmad I al-Mansur Saadi to dispatch an invasion force under the Judar Pasha The Songhai conquered a vast quantity of land under Sunni Ali's military genius. The various departments set up by Askia the Great deeply resemble the departments of American government. Additionally, the sophisticated government was organized and had specific estates donating specific resources for the rest of the empire Songhai had many natural resources with the Niger River being the most important because it could control the going and coning of trade. They also were skilled farmers and agriculture was very important to them. They grew many crops and animals such as beans, sheep, onions, millet, and papaya along with many others Askia Mohammed the Great encouraged literacy and learning. In the Songhai Empire, there were the best scholars that made Islamic books that are still used today. Askia also spread Islam all over.

Askia is no-nonsense person. • Background. Askia is a member of the Songhai Empire and later a pharaoh of Old Kingdom Egypt. She has seen Masa Masa's gold collection. She fought against the Hyskos. She knew of Wyrl expanding his hidden reach in Greece and the Roman Empire Tomb of Askia. The dramatic 17-m pyramidal structure of the Tomb of Askia was built by Askia Mohamed, the Emperor of Songhai, in 1495 in his capital Gao. It bears testimony to the power and riches of the empire that flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries through its control of the trans-Saharan trade, notably in salt and gold

Askia Daoud (also Askia Dawud) was ruler of the Songhai Empire from 1549 to 1582. The empire experienced a period of stability and a string of military successes during the reign of Askia Daoud (1549-1582/1583). African empires Songhai people Gao Timbuktu Askiya Dynasty. Askia Ishaq I Mohammed, Askia of Songhai; Askia I ) Mohammed (Songhai; Mohammed, Askia of Songhai; Muḥammad b Abī Bakr Askiyā: Material Type: Biography: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: Ibrahima Baba Kaké; Gilbert Comt

The Architecture & Art of the Songhai Empire | StudyKingdom of Songhai - West African Trading KingdomsBlack Muslim Heroes - Askia Muhammad I - YouTube
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